Fictitious project and solder relay learn numeric imitate

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Summary: Introduced domestic and international fictitious project and solder relay to learn numeric simulative development and author to be in in recent years the research achievement of this domain and its use example mediumly in the project. Keyword: Relay of fictitious project, solder learns, numeric imitate, solder be out of shape the leap of the technology such as introductive computer, information, network develops, atmosphere of the surroundings that gives the mankind, culture brought profound change. This kind of profound change is mirrorred in original manufacturing industry and even welder Cheng to come necessarily. Fictitious project is the new field of an emerge as the times require, and develop ahead with breathtaking speed. The advanced production technology that offers in recent years, include such as CIMS (CIMS) , collateral project, Ling Jie is made etc. CIMS will make the computer such as process CAD, CAE, CAPP, CAM, CAT assist the pertinent information in the technology namely, carry a network compositive together. Fictitious project makes whole production process gets rehearse and implementation on the computer further. Want implementation to solder fictitious project is very complex, its itself is a huge project. It includes heat source, course control, solder metallurgy, stress is out of shape wait for each link. The article learns imitate from solder relay only this one flank introduction in recent years state of affairs of domestic and international a few development and come for years the work that we do in place of this one field. The research that solder relay learns includes to solder conduct heat, solder be out of shape and leftover stress, solder crackle and solder the mechanical behavior of contact. Especially in recent years the development as new and high technology, and the application of automata and robot, because this pair solders,the precision of the product asks taller and taller. However, solder be out of shape and the metabolic rule of leftover stress still often is known up to now be not worth and master hard. In the CIMS system that makes precision for control in auto industry for example, solder be out of shape mix to be forecasted exclusively hard pilot element. Come for years domestic and international scholar and expert learned a domain to have much research in solder relay. The author also undertook in this domain many research work in recent years, ever publishing concerned paper domestic and internationally more than 100. Achievement of a few research received success application in the project. The introductory hope of the article can be mixed in the research of this domain the action that actual project promotes since applied respect. Institute of science of joint of Japanese Osaka university raised trend of 1 domestic and international development 2000 a plan finishs a cost 5 years 2 billion yen (dollar of 2 ten million) national task [1] : "Efficient solder with safety technical development " , in fact it is including to solder the research of fictitious project. Its purpose is development an user interface is friendly efficient all of computer science department that solders with safety. It gives out at the same time 3 accurate simulator, solder namely the process simulator, program that be forecasted by solder area organization and be out of shape forecast an order (graph 1) . Among them the target of each simulator is: (1) solder process simulator includes model of plasma of an electric arc, the demand is beardless and local of hot kinetic balance assume, solder of bath dimension forecast precision to achieve ± 10% . (2) the program that be forecasted by solder area organization includes acicular the formation of ferrite model, requirement ferrite, acicular of ferrite composition and room temperature intensity forecast be in respectively ± 5% , ± 10% with ± 50Mpa less than. (3) solder outside be out of shape the program includes a range, be out of shape forecast precision to be in 15% less than of ± . To develop afore-mentioned simulator, still need to undertake a series of accurate experiment test and verify, include physical property determine, if plasma environment issues the thermal conductance of the exterior tension of bath, solid state and bath,wait. Graph 1 solder the development that numeric imitate learns numeric method about solder relay, at the beginning of seventies, of Japan on Tian Xingxiong above all with finite yuan the law is a foundation, put forward to consider what material machinery function and temperature concern to solder heat plays plasticity to analyse theory, make the analysis of process of complex meet an emergency of dynamic welding stress becomes a possibility thereby. The H of after this United States.

D.

Hibbert, e.

F.

Ryblicki, y.

The K of Iwamuk and American MIT.

Masubuchi soldering to leftover stress and metabolic are forecasted and controlled a respect to undertake a lot of research work. Canadian J.

Goldak to arriving from melting point when room temperature solder thermal stress undertook analytic study, raised each temperature paragraph this compose equation. Swedish L.

Karlsson right big board of joining together solder be out of shape and stress undertook analytic study, analysed the effect of the change of clearance of welding line front and dot solid solder especially. French J.

B.

Leblond is right the model sexual behavior of the steel when changing had theory and numeric research. SYSWELD special software developed on the foundation such as afore-mentioned research. This software can be used at quenching, finishing, solder, heat treatment and cast the analytic research that waits for a process, include data phase to change among them, the around processing of computation of hardness of cubage change and latent heat influence, surface, leftover stress and computation of meet an emergency, interaction. T.

Inoue in studying companion has the temperature change process that changes, temperature, photograph changes, thermal stress 3 person the coupling effect between, the requirement that put forward to considering coupling effect leaves the common form of this compose equation. Latter England solders the institute developed " the structure is out of shape forecast a system " (SDPS) , can solder with what will forecast complex structure be out of shape [2] . Home is mixed in university of traffic of the Xi'an at the beginning of 80 time began Shanghai traffic university to be heated up about soldering accuse plasticity theory and the research work that analyse a respect in numerical value. Xi'an traffic university and Shanghai east the dockyard collaboration generation to crackle of bosseyed solder terminal mechanism and prevented to have experiment and numeric research, obtained remarkable result. Shanghai traffic university was published 1985 " the numeric analysis application in solder " monograph, to domestic and international at that time research achievement made the introduction. They developed 2 dimension plane to be out of shape with axial symmetry solder heat plays plasticity finite yuan of analysis program, be in thin plate, thick board the application that receives succeeding with the respect of welding stress analysis such as pipe, university of traffic of 90 time Shanghai and Japanese Osaka university are mixed to three-dimensional welding stress be out of shape the problem had joint research, put forward to improve computation precision and a certain number of astringent ways, those who developed to concern is three-dimensional the applied example that solders to analyse a process and have many successes. In recent years Tsinghua university, Tianjin university also undertook solder relay learns the numeric imitate of the process. Tianjin university solders in local law assess in research of contact exhaustion intensity, applied the result that distributinging numerical value of local and leftover stress analyses directly. 2 solder relay learns numeric simulative theory to study achievement comes for years, we are engaged in solder relay learning the research of numeric imitate domain, undertook more extensive international cooperates, take the following main gain: 1) developed agree with all sorts of soldering heat inputs what the condition falls to solder conduct heat finite yuan of analysis method and corresponding computer program, solved " concussion " wait for a problem, raised computational precision [3] . 2) considered to rise three-dimensional solder heat plays plasticity finite the effective method of yuan of computation precision and stability [4] and developed corresponding computer program, be in a certain number of three-dimensional and complex solder structural analysis [5] and break firm be out of shape analysis [the application that receives succeeding in 6] . 3) the analysis of the trends that undertook successfully considering to change and leftover stress studies [7] . 4) introduce those who consider high temperature creep to stick play plasticity finite yuan of method, the assess criterion of the heat treatment after solder of ministry of play a game of chess had comprehensive research [8] , formulated new assess method [9] , get on international take seriously extensively. 5) put forward and developed to be based on stretch calculative to forecast solder metabolic remains model becomes finite yuan of method [10] , include to use three peace keeping board housing unit and consideration are out of shape greatly, for large and complex solder structural analysis provided strong tool. This technology brought revolutionary progress for actual project application. 6) built a certain number of special type successfully to solder the mathematical model with join method, if metal of pottery and porcelain diffuses,connective remains stress is mixed transfer of the layer optimize a choice [11] , the resistor spot welding of besmear zinc armor plate [12] , bilge tubal join model [13, 14] , extreme misery is curved board [15] , agitate friction welding receives conduct heat and mechanical model [16] , all obtain very good result. 3 solder be out of shape and the comparison that stress forecasts a method and its suitable scope are out of shape according to soldering and the casts theory development of leftover stress, can sum up following methods, they have their to actor or actress defect reachs his to use range severally: 1) establish the experience curve on experiment and statistical foundation and formula 2) be based on the leftover model political reform with one analytic dimension 3) solder heat is played plasticity is finite yuan of analysis 4) be based on flexibility finite the inherent meet an emergency of yuan of analysis 5) the consideration changes with coupling effect finite, more analytic law, three-dimensional heat plays plasticity limited yuan of law, three-dimensional hypostatic unit is inherent law of meet an emergency and board of 4 kinds of methods such as law of unit and inherent meet an emergency forecast a result, undertake comparative with actual measurement data, analyse its actor defect and applicable condition. The structural dimension of T bridge: Answer board sectional 6 millimeter of 180 × , face plate is sectional 6 millimeter of 30 × , length 900 millimeter. Material is mild steel. Solder parameter: Bosseyed solder a fillet weld, solder foot height is 6 millimeter, solder hot input Qv=10.

5KJ/cm, solder speed V=1cm/s. Actual measurement earning of 6 bridge the biggest curve deflection average to be F=1.

42 millimeter. Graph 2 for board law of unit and inherent meet an emergency forecasts earning to solder be out of shape graph. Watch 1 compare with what express the 2 results that forecast for 4 kinds of methods and characteristic. Normal Align=center> graph bridge solders be out of shape graph Normal Align=center> expresses 4 kinds of 1 methods to compare Normal LINE-HEIGHT of 14pt"> calculation method: Normal > actual measurement: Normal > analytic law: 14pt"> substance is unit and inherent Normal > board Normal > heat plays plasticity Normal > is finite yuan of law Normal >f/mmnormal >1.

42normal >1.

57normal >1.

67normal >1.

64normal >1.

75normal >normal Align=center> watch forecasts methodological characteristic 4 kinds 2 Normal LINE-HEIGHT of 14pt"> calculation method: Normal > analytic law: 10.

5pt; TEXT-INDENT: - 10.

5pt; LINE-HEIGHT: The Normal > unit substance: The inherent meet an emergency of unit of 14pt"> board housing has law Normal > heat plays plasticity finite yuan of analytic method Normal > principle Normal > solders heat conducts academic, structure mechanical and academic Normal > inherent meet an emergency, FEMnormal > board carapace is out of shape greatly academic, FEMnormal > plasticity flow, virtual work, FEMnormal > carries out measure Normal > analysis solders parameter of component part geometry and solder normative parameter Normal > differentiates reseau; To load is inherent meet an emergency; Three-dimensional flexibility is limited yuan of analysis Normal > differentiates reseau; To load is inherent meet an emergency, nonlinear be out of shape greatly stretch and finite yuan of analysis Normal > differentiates reseau; Solder the imitate of temperature field; Solder; Heat plays plasticity to analyse Normal LINE-HEIGHT of 14pt"> computation characteristic: 14pt"> needs what experience reachs test data to accumulate Normal > emphasizes solder be out of shape Normal > emphasizes solder be out of shape Normal > dogs solder Normal > computation costs Normal > is opposite only simple component, computation measures small Normal > computation time is short; Computational Normal > measures small Normal > computation time is short; Computation measures small Normal > computation time is very long; Computation measures big Normal LINE-HEIGHT of 14pt"> suitable scope: Normal > regular bridge: 14pt"> substance is complex structural Normal LINE-HEIGHT of miscellaneous structure of 14pt"> Bao Bifu: Normal > small-sized structure: 21.

25pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; TEXT-ALIGN: Left"> by the watch 1 with the watch 2 visible, a few kinds solder be out of shape the result that forecast and actual measurement data are close to quite, it is reliable consequently. Wait for sectional bridge structure to regulation, can get its to solder directly with analytic law be out of shape. Should be opposite only of large and three-dimensional structure solder be out of shape when undertaking forecasting, can use three-dimensional substance unit and inherent meet an emergency is finite yuan of method. Complex to Baobi structure solders metabolic is forecasted, can use board housing unit inherent meet an emergency is finite yuan of method, right now unit reseau differentiates can simplify greatly further. Three-dimensional heat plays plasticity to analyse computation workload is very big (computation exceeded this exemple 24 hours) , it was recorded solder thermodynamic whole process, not only the integral remains of the structure after attainable solder is out of shape, and can analyse leftover stress, still can analyse at the same time whole solder the dynamic stress in the process and be out of shape. Consequently it is in need detailed knowledge solders be out of shape and the powerful tool when the rule of stress. In addition, when analysing excel in steel need consideration changes influence. And when high temperature eliminates stress to handle, must introduce creep analysis. Normal >normal >4 applies example Normal >normal >4.

Of compressor of 1 air conditioning solder be out of shape analyse with stress [17]normal > is in edge of wall of canister of compressor cylinder upside is circumferential and even the hole that opened 3 8mm, use solder of arc of tungsten pole argon to undertake solder of a place of strategic importance at the same time next, rise cylinder and bearing join. Main analysis cylinder and upside bearing solder are guided those who rise is prejudicial the change that carries department figure with cylinder. Graph the remains of model of computation of the 3 compressor after be solder is out of shape graph, radial of cylinder end ministry is out of shape be just as " beautiful shape " . Used this computation model to ever considered to solder pair of solder hind such as deviation of discretion of position of opening of solder of the hot input, time difference that assembles 3 clearance, welding line to solder, a place of strategic importance and clamping apparatus are prejudicial and " beautiful shape " metabolic influence. Imitate computation result and actual measurement data comparative be identical. The leftover stress that still can acquire whole structure through computation distributings, the biggest advocate stress appears in solder of a place of strategic importance to nod the heat all round to affect an area, numerical value can amount to material succumb stress. Graph the remains that 3 compressor solder is out of shape Normal >normal >4.

Condenser of report of 2 600MW nucleus solders be out of shape analysis [18]normal > was used three-dimensional solder heat plays plasticity finite yuan wait for a method join of medium tube plate connect, pipe, big to 600MW condenser makeup, add muscle board to wait solder be out of shape undertook forecasting, provided a basis for actual production. Graph 4 soldering for model of half weeks of tube plate the temperature field of hour of the some in the process. Computation makes clear as a result, the axial of the pipe after 3 solder always contracts to be about 0.

86mm. On clapboard 8 places that run aperture and appearance also produced a change, show radial diameter to increase Zhou Xiangzhi diameter to narrow " egg form " change. Can forecast the radial on clapboard to contract to be apart from the increase and reduces case that leave along with the arbor in leaving at the same time, can provide reference to design of position of starting a hole thereby. Graph 4 tube plate solder the temperature field of hour of the some in the process 4.

3 cars are made solder mediumly precision is controlled 4.

3.

Hydraulic of 1 high accuracy changes quadrature implement solder be out of shape [19] car deserves to change with hydraulic fully quadrature implement production precision demand is very high, because how is this controlled,solder be out of shape, assure the dimension precision of the product, it is to solder a key with whether successful craft. Used heat to play plasticity finite yuan change with leftover model two kinds of methods, change to hydraulic quadrature implement solder be out of shape undertook numeric imitate and analysis. Graph 5 change for hydraulic quadrature implement solder be out of shape. Computational analysis makes clear, hydraulic changes quadrature implement after assembly of fluctuation cover board solders be out of shape the space that will affect the surface inside upper cover and internal pressure annulus and join the parallelism of an end face and verticality, because this is before the design that assembles clamping apparatus and solder,this one factor must consider in assembling, in order to make sure the technology of shape of measure of the product after solder asks. Solder be out of shape increase and increase of energy as solder wiring, the axial systole when double talk solders also will increase significantly.

Because this should choose the electron beam that high-power high speed spends,only way solders, .

Can make sure solder is appeared already, reduced solder wiring energy again, reduce greatly thereby solder be out of shape. Graph 5 hydraulic change quadrature implement solder be out of shape 4.

3.

Of 2 cars deputy frame solder be out of shape car deputy frame is very complex, when the requirement analyses deputy frame assembly, 21 welding line of the later Liang dynasty, Zun Liang and the bridge before join, right bridge solder the following be out of shape the rule. Use leftover model to become finite for this yuan the method undertakes an analysis. As a result of deputy frame by before structure of 4 Bao Biliang constitutes the later Liang dynasty, Zun Liang and bridge, right bridge, reason uses 4 node board carapace is unit. Graph 6 after soldering for deputy frame assembly, be in of X direction be out of shape graph. When computational earning does not overcome assembly of car deputy frame, 21 welding line of the later Liang dynasty, Zun Liang and the bridge before join, right bridge solder the following be out of shape regular data can offer welder art the reference such as the obligate deflection when the design and clamping apparatus design. The success of this exemple is a major breakthrough, it is large and complex structure be out of shape the analysis offerred capacious prospect. After assembly of 6 pairs of frame solders, the graph is in of X direction be out of shape graph 4.

3.

Spot welding of 2 cars white automobile body assembles a process to analyse [20] adopts model of spot welding axial symmetry, the osculatory characteristic in analysing spot welding of automobile body spare parts to rig a process, spare parts is out of shape reach transient state to heat up a process. The result makes clear, assemble precision and character, the spare parts is out of shape the effect that basically gets electrode force and first try clearance, in have connective of spot welding of spare parts of typical automobile body when solder nods span, fuel factor of spot welding process is negligible to influence of spare parts metabolic, to simplify automobile body assembled drift analysis to provide a basis. Additional, assure quality of clamp of fixed position of automobile body spare parts, reduce spare parts gap, can reduce electrode to wear away, improve electrode service life. Graph the 7 temperature when be spot welding distributing. Graph the temperature when solder distributinged at 7 o'clock 4.

Of 4 large constructions solder be out of shape forecast 4.

4.

Of structure of system of 1 large a light boat solder be out of shape forecast [two diameters are 21] the substance of contains rib a light boat of 1700mm undertakes a butt joint with multi-pass welding. Use three-dimensional and leftover model to become finite yuan of analysis method, to having rib is mixed without rib of body of two kinds of a light boat solder be out of shape undertake comparative. The graph shows the remains after be their solder 8 times to be out of shape. After multi-pass welding is received, have rib and without rib sectional diameter shortens respectively among body of two kinds of a light boat about 1.

0 Mm and 1.

2 Mm. The axial systole of two kinds of cylindrical shell is almost identical about 1.

5 Mm. Afore-mentioned computation all with close of data of concerned imitating test. Use this method, still heat up an input to soldering differently, bear the weight of and support a condition to soldering metabolic influence undertook study, provided reference and basis for actual production. Graph of structure of 8 large cylindrical shell solder be out of shape 4.

4.

Of ship structure of 2 large size solder be out of shape [22] pursues 9 to use board housing unit inherent meet an emergency is finite yuan of law is old to size ship structure solders metabolic is forecasted. Graph 9 ship structure solder be out of shape 4.

4.

Of structure of float of 3 especially big dimension solder be out of shape [structure of float of 22] especially big dimension (Mega-Float) it is by a lot of big unit the one after another goes all out to install and be become, the dimension precision that solders to control pair of constructions with clearance orderly right now has very big effect. Graph 10 with the graph the 11 assembly that are float structure reach his to be affected to metabolic orderly. Graph the assembly drawing of 10 float structure of 11 float structure be out of shape 4.

The welding stress of structure of 5 aluminium alloy and be out of shape 4.

5.

1 aluminium alloy is versed in word bridge solders leftover stress is analysed [23] uses heat to play plasticity finite yuan of way is right aluminium alloy of different connect form is versed in of word bridge solder leftover stress undertook an analysis, develop aluminium alloy welder in order to choose first-rate connect form the largest carrying capacity of word bridge. Solder the theory of leftover stress is forecasted measure calm data to comparative with patterning method be identical. 4.

5.

2 aluminium alloy π - cut face plate solders break firm be out of shape analysis [22] pursues 12 aluminium alloy π - sectional structure uses board housing unit inherent meet an emergency is finite yuan the law undertook an analysis. Graph the 12 one aluminium alloy π in be railroad car structure - cut face plate. Graph 13 with the graph 14 break firm metabolic to forecast earning to solder respectively two kinds of different forms (twist transition and saddle model) . They and π - sectional shape size is concerned. From the point of energy viewpoint, twist transition to compare saddle model should some more desirable. Graph 13 twist transition to be out of shape graph 14 saddle be out of shape 4.

6 extreme misery are curved board heat with the induction figuration [24] extreme misery is curved board use blaze to heat commonly, have natural refrigeration normally (air is cold) , the front dogs water-cooling and the reverse side dog water-cooling a few kinds of means. The author ever used three-dimensional heat to play plasticity finite yuan of method is curved to extreme misery board undertook an analysis. Blaze heat source regards thermal current of a surface as the input, heat flux assumes show gauss to distributing. Water-cooling area and empty cold region are in finite yuan conditioning of different heat exchange border is made when the analysis. Example computation obtains better result. However three-dimensional heat plays plasticity finite yuan of method is right computer of high capacity of need of large and complex component part and very long technology time, very wasteful. Because this uses method of inherent meet an emergency,will replace have very big advantage. In addition finite yuan when the analysis used board housing unit extensively. To facilitate accurate control shapes process, the induction heats to already was considered as method of a kind of very appropriate figuration. Be in a few enterprises of foreign, if Ishikawa island of Japan is sowed,worry heavy industry, be forecasted in law of inherent meet an emergency and control an induction to heat on the foundation of figuration, already developed made computer pilot automatic induction heats curved trigger, successful application receives in actual production. 4.

7 pottery and porcelain / stress of metallic connective remains and its alleviate [11] uses heat to play plasticity finite yuan the law analysed hot pressing nitrogen to change silicon (Si3N4) and K-500 alloy diffusion welding guide the leftover stress state that have. Compared square good test specimen three-dimensional and leftover stress and round good test specimen the feature of stress of remains of 2 dimension axial symmetry, discussed different transfer the influence of the layer. The result makes clear, standing by the appearance of pottery and porcelain near join interface face existence axial is the biggest tensile stress, its position just agrees with craze place, can be affected as assess remains stress and the choice is optimal transfer an index of the layer. Better than the circle test specimen wants standard of stress of remains of square good test specimen tall, its are the biggest tensile stress is former 1 what be latter about.

5 times (see a picture 15) . Be about to win the contact of diffusion welding of metal of pottery and porcelain that reduces leftover stress to again tall interface joins faculty already, the proposal is used soft metal, low expand what metal and active metal comprise is compound transfer layer. The experiment makes clear, use appropriate optimal and compound transfer when layer matched stack, the room temperature of connect of Si3N4/K-500 diffusion welding and high temperature (800 ° C) bending strength all amounts to 216 MPa above. Graph 15 pottery and porcelain / stress of metallic connective remains 4.

8 treasure steel feasibility of the heat treatment after local solder analyses 300 tons of converter [25] Bao Gang D=8500mm of diameter of body of heater of 300 tons of converter, mural thick T=80mm. When general assembly by two big link welding line joins fluctuation 3 paragraphs rise. Because body of heater is too big, stress is eliminated to handle after ever considering to use local solder, ask to increase intertropical appropriate breadth certainly. Used when the analysis stick play plasticity axial symmetry finite yuan of computation model. If pursue 16 with the graph 17 are shown, computation makes clear heating only when width is very big (B=2400mm) inside stress of Zhou Xiang axial ability is inferior. Because diameter of this converter body of heater and wall are large very big, use what what when local solder postheat is handled, need to heat width is very big. Apparent, this is mixed in economy can realize sexual respect to be put in the problem, it is unsuited consequently. According to the character of the working requirement of body of heater and material, if solder,the function of contact satisfies a requirement, the disappear stress that can consider not to undertake solder postheat is handled handles technology. In the meantime, the proposal uses hammer to knock welding line, hydrogen treatment of the disappear after the welding line of the burnish after solder technology measure that is helpful for reducing gentle and leftover stress and solder solders with reducing the tendency of crackle. Pass feasibility analysis, avoided the undesirable consequence that the heat treatment after the mistake chooses local solder may bring, at the same time big political integrity restricted manpower, material resources and fund. Graph 16 inside Zhouxiang stress distributinging graph of the surface 17 inside axial stress of the surface distributings 4.

The contact of diffusion welding of metal of pottery and porcelain that the application in 9 new and high technologies uses solder relay to learn Ceng Huo of numeric imitate technology to must reduce leftover stress to again tall interface joins faculty already [9] . Be in without impress stainless steel store can in the research of spot welding new technology, numeric imitate also had main effect. The solder relay that at present we are undertaking medium task includes spacecraft learns numeric imitate and imitate of numerical value of small in medical apparatus and instruments connective to wait. The development of 5 last words as computer technology change quickly, the numeric imitate skill that solder relay learns also had very great progress, raised a new level. Already the essence that some numeric research achievement already made we receive mechanical phenomenon to complex solder and rule had farther thorough knowledge, brought new thinking and new method to solve and control these problems thereby, there were many successful application routines in the project. Should see these research or abecedarian however, cannot satisfy the need of scientific research and actual project far. Can believe, to soldering as people the height of the further development of process and phenomenal acknowledge and computer technology develops, include what solder relay learns to forecast theory solders with what control a technology inside fictitious project, also be sure to develop and have wide applied perspective more and more. CNC Milling CNC Machining