Numerical control car machines process designing principle

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1. Numerical control lathe introduces numerical control car a machining center is numerical control lathe familiar name. Turning depends on it basically be being used at be like an axis unlike the crucial part of milling kind, annular, dish the treatment of the swing tower spare parts such as spare parts and kind of whorl. The configuration means that numerical control lathe presses main shaft can be divided to include lathe of horizontal numerical control and lathe of vertical numerical control. Among them the sort of lathe of horizontal numerical control is very much. The function of inchoate numerical control lathe is singler, the digitlization that only the linkage function place of two axes realizes X, Z controls turning to machine. Be based on the need of patulous on numerical control lathe size range of pipe bent, dynamical cutting tool increased on tool carrier of numerical control lathe, increased the function of milling respect, on this foundation development becomes Che Xi machining center, but because cutting tool of numerical control lathe adds man-hour to face towards from beginning to end,main shaft rotates center, make size range of pipe bent of traditional Che Xi machining center finite, cutting tool of main use motive force undertakes mill plane, chamfer, auger, the front main shaft such as aperture of enlarge, bore with a reamer rotates central treatment. As the ceaseless development of numerical control technology, and new product development and the requirement that react quickly, the main body structure of numerical control equipment is formed seriation, modular, increased Y axis to reach its to rotate axis, development becomes genuine Che Xi machining center. In last few years, be based on the tigidity to the spare parts and the need that machine stability, developed spare parts follow advance gradually of fore-and-aft and divisional region and the machining center of straight-cut type Che Xi that approaching place of machine tool main shaft to undertake cutting from beginning to end. Tool carrier regards numerical control as one of important parts of lathe, decided the integral layout of numerical control lathe and character of service. Have turn tower tool carrier and arrange type tool carrier point-blank two kinds of forms, lathe of common horizontal numerical control is more turn tower type tool carrier. Numerical control lathe gains ground very much in the factory, numerical control lathe is machining a domain to having main effect euqally with machining center. Industrial statistic data makes clear, think numerical control lathe and machining center photograph are compared generally relatively a few simpler, although numerical control lathe can machine the spare parts of a high quality. Numerical control lathe basically is used at machining the swing tower spare parts that quality of high accuracy, surface has asked, the program with accordingly very few need and the operation that start, but this is equal to say, numerical control lathe cannot be used at the treatment of cycle weak point and common spare parts, the spare parts that mill machines the far outclass of spare parts rate that because need a car,just machines. 2. The characteristic of numerical control lathe (1) the operation that numerical control lathe can complete automatically has main shaft gearshift, positive and negative to turn, start or stop, the feed of two coordinate direction and sudden shift, the loose, dislocation of tool carrier and clamp, the switch of cutting fluid. (2) the feed of numerical control lathe tool must establish connection with the whirl of main shaft, because be when turning of numerical control lathe,turn with main shaft direction of feed of edge of circuit lathe tool is mobile equivalent of how many pulse comes calculative. (3) because the spare parts designs blueprint to tag and be measured of dimension,be diametical value, accordingly, to raise radial dimension precision, square facilitating process designing and measure, x is taken to pulse equivalent for Z to half, when reason diameter direction uses absolute value process designing, x coordinate value expresses with diametical value. When using increment process designing, with the 2 times process designing that radial and actual displacement measures, and attach direction symbol. (4) when lathe of horizontal numerical control machines a spare parts, be based on quality of spare parts surface and the need that machine precision, main shaft must have a bigger timing range, can use already constant exterior speed, also can use of course constant rotate speed. (5) have cutting tool to compensate function and have jump situation statement function. (6) numerical control lathe is two coordinate machine tool normally, realize two coordinate (X, z) spare parts of outline of linkage treatment swing tower. (7) because the car processes the semifinished product of the spare parts commonly used wollens and modular forging, mental allowance is bigger, so numerical control lathe often has the fixed loop function of different form, can undertake a variety of turning circulate. 3. The numerical control program that the process designing standard of numerical control lathe uses at numerical control lathe and numerical control mill machine program is very similar. Because organizing the move and is not 3 axes campaign that needs to care two reference axis only when program of numerical control car, process designing is consequently some easier; On the other hand, use at the G with basic process designing of numerical control mill or M instruction to also can be used at process designing of numerical control car. If you can write program of numerical control mill, so, you also can learn very easily to write program of numerical control car. An interesting question is the standardization problem that controls a system in numerical control lathe, process designing of numerical control car standardizes degree relatively degree of standardization of process designing of treatment of numerical control mill wants a lot of less. EIA/ISO standard system made system of instruction of process designing of numerical control car technically, and actually, the machine tool produces manufacturer to dictate without process designing of numerical control mill the system is normative in that way, implement EIA/ISO standard strictly. The member that process designing of numerical control car dictates systematic disorder means process designing must cost many time to study the special statement of lathe of different numerical control, can produce a lot of mistakes otherwise. (1) the control system of numerical control equipment is current the numerical control system with numerical control common lathe is FANUC and SIEMENS control system, if the basic instruction that controls a system is linear interpolation and statement of circular arc interpolation are very similar, the biggest distinction depends on the code all kinds of strange things that dictates circularly. (2) lathe of numerical control of definition of reference axis of numerical control lathe uses flute to get stuck likewise coordinate of process designing of coordinate department definition is, it is reference axis is different from CNC Milling only just. Basis of numerical control lathe is used to, at the axis of machine tool main shaft parallel the definition is Z axis, and perpendicular at the axis of machine tool main shaft the definition is X axis. Graph 1 explained this is nodded, the directional definition of reference axis is, z is giving priority to an axis to the definition on the right side of direction, the back direction definition of front machine tool is X to. The tool carrier of numerical control lathe that this basically considers a typical case installs the back in the machine tool (face handlers) . Origin is set in the center of the front face that should machine a spare parts normally. Graph coordinate of process designing of lathe of 1 numerical control is fastened to Che Xi machining center or straight-cut type machining center, increased the axis of C of runner shaft coming back of Z axis direction, and Y axis reachs his to rotate axial B axis. (3) diametical process designing or treatment of car of numerical control of radius process designing is to use part of treatment turn coming back, as a result of the radial dimension of swing tower spare parts, no matter be,devise measure or measuring size is with the diameter the value comes denotive, accordingly, numerical control lathe can use means of diametical process designing already, also can use means of radius process designing, the coordinate value that distinction depends on X axis is different just. Use means of diametical process designing, when using absolutely coordinate process designing, x coordinate value is diametical value, when using opposite coordinate process designing, the duple value that with cutting tool radial actual displacement is worth is process designing value. Relative to character, diametical process designing relatively radius process designing is more convenient, when undertaking manual process designing especially, the simple arithmetic that can avoid to the diameter value conversion is worth into radius and may happen is wrong. The circle outside be like those who machine a diameter to be 65mm, need only the diameter 65 definitions are worth for X coordinate, and do not need conversion to be worth into radius 32.

5, next watches showed the difference of method of two kinds of process designing. All numerical control systems set systematic variable to use process designing of which kinds of means in order to decide, if want a change, can consult equipment manual or advisory equipment business undertake, had better decide by equipment business before equipment leaves factory. Watch diameter process designing and radius process designing compare process designing of diameter of process designing method (process designing of Diameter Programming) radius (G01 X65 of content of Radius Programming) program.


0G01 X32.


0 (4) main shaft rotates the direction of rotation of main shaft comes true through code of instruction of M03, M04. Usually, the tool carrier of numerical control lathe installs the upper part at the back of main shaft normally, treatment cutting tool is in the position that approachs a part most downward, use M03 instruction to make winner axis is turning, make the commonnest way thereby. Basically use at outside round turning, also use at using operation of drilling of standard dextrorotation twist drill. The direction of rotation of main shaft, the design with main shaft is actually relevant, the runner shaft coming back that circles Z axis namely C axis. In fact, a lot of numerical control lathe allow to undertake C axis interpolation and graduation. 4. Lathe tool is installed (1) point of a knife and knife heart process designing are when process designing of numerical control mill, can use knife heart process designing, also can use cutting tool radius to compensate a function to undertake outline process designing. On this, process designing of numerical control car and process designing of mill treatment numerical control are very similar, because lathe tool blade carries the actual condition that is Chan Ren, the contact when point of a knife of use hypothesis of numerical control lathe regards numerical control as process designing is nodded, the node with tangent reference axis of the point of a knife that we can pass setting cutting tool and X, Z will determine the treatment position of fictitious point of a knife, if pursue,2 are shown. Graph sketch map of 2 hypothesises point of a knife the service life to raise lathe tool, reduce exterior surface roughness, the blade of lathe tool carries the circular arc with constant wear lesser radius, the radius of the smallest point of a knife of standard lathe tool is R0.

2mm, most greatly R2.

4mm, common it is R0 more.

8mm. Lathe tool radius and milling cutter radius are same, in must consider when numerical control process designing or bringing into its numerical control program through computation. Be in only outside car of direction of edge Z axis when end panel of car of direction of circle or edge X axis, process designing of point of a knife just need not have any compensation. Lathe of most numerical control can be installed already to use process designing of fictitious point of a knife, the center that also can use circular arc of point of a knife namely knife heart process designing. When although be in,using knife heart process designing, must compensate the compensation of cutting tool radius that machines likeness with mill artificially. For example, use radius of a point of a knife to be R0.

The lathe tool of 8, the car machines a diameter to be of 66 outside round, use process designing of point of a knife, the coordinate cost that requires simple definition X axis only is X66.

0, and if use knife heart process designing, must be worth the radius of point of a knife of double 1.

6 with diametical value 66 addition are worth as designation diameter 67.

6, such ability arrive at correct treatment position X67.

6. (2) the process designing of confine point of a knife of process designing of point of a knife is very convenient, but also have limitation, can use at machining parallel to fall at the circumstance of X and Z axis only. If want to machine a cone or circular arc, can produce geometrical mistake, if the graph is shown 3 times, because end of tangent lathe tool blade and contrail of academic cutting tool do not accord with be caused by,these mistakes basically are. When machining cone, the error can be solved through operation of direct trigonometric function, and to machining circular arc, relatively a few more complex, when the contrail that controls a process because of a move in chess or a movement in wushu of edge of point of a knife moves, this error is constant change is worn. Graph the way that sketch map of error of process designing of 3 point of a knife settles perhaps uses knife heart process designing, radius of point of a knife compensation cost is added in radius, if the graph is shown 4 times, or use cutting tool radius to compensate a function automatically, motion of contrail of control cutting tool arrives on correct cutting tool contrail. A kind of method also is the most perfect settlement actually after method, because we can use cutting tool compensation to achieve final cutting tool orbit, can allow to use process designing of point of a knife at the same time. Graph contrail of process designing of 4 knives heart CNC Milling CNC Machining