Nicety makes a technology

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One, the technology summarizes accurate production technology is the surplus after pointing to figuration of part semifinished product small or the precision after be being machined without semifinished product of surplus, part the manufacturing technology floorboard of class of Da Yawei rice. It is close clean figuration and close flawless figuration technology, superprecision technology and those who exceed high speed processing technique is integrated and compositive. Close clean figuration and close flawless figuration technical reformation technique of traditional semifinished product figuration, make figuration of mechanical product semifinished product implements the change that spends to essence of life by extensive, make exterior quality is made do not have surplus or be close to without surplus, in-house quality is made flawless or adjacent flawless, implementation is quantified high gradely, efficiently, gently, the figuration of low cost. This technology involves casting to build mould of modified of modified of figuration, plasticity figuration, accurate join, heat treatment, surface, high accuracy to wait for professional domain. Superprecision technology is to point to by the dimension precision prep above of treatment spare parts 0. 1µm, ra is less than exterior surface roughness 0. 025µm, and the resolution that uses precision of machine tool fixed position and repeatability prep above 0. The processing technique of 01µm, also say for inferior micron class processing technique, and to accept rice class processing technique develops. Superprecision technology basically includes: The mechanism of superprecision, the equipment of superprecision makes a technology, superprecision tool and blade grind a technology, exceed nicety to measure technology and error compensation technology, superprecision work ambient conditions. Exceeding high speed processing technique is to point to use the cutting tool that exceeds hard data, excise precision of rate, treatment and the contemporary processing technique that process quality through raising cutting speed and feed speed to improve data greatly. The workpiece material that because differ,exceeds the cutting speed range that high speed machines, different cutting kind and different. Current, think commonly, exceed high speed cutting of all sorts of material cut fast limits to be: Aluminium alloy already exceeded 1600m/min, cast-iron for 1500m/min, exceed heat-resisting nickel alloy to amount to 300m/min, titanium alloy amounts to 150 ~ 1000m/min, fiber increases plastic for 2000 ~ 9000m/min. The cutting speed limits of all sorts of cutting craft is: Turning 700 ~ 7000m/min, milling 300 ~ 6000m/min, auger cut 200 ~ 1100m/min, grinding 250m/s above is waited a moment. Exceed high speed processing technique to basically include: Exceed high speed cutting and grinding mechanism, exceed unit of high speed main shaft to make a technology, exceed unit of high speed feed to make a technology, fast treatment uses freeboard cutting tool and grind a production technology, exceed high speed treatment is online and automatic detect wait with control technology. 2, the current situation and trend of domestic and international development 1. Technical development trend is close clean figuration and close flawless figuration technology is leaving a century there is tendency of the following development first: (1) the figuration that technology of close clean figuration produces precision can rise further, can make the take shape with more complex form, be close to Yujing figuration more. (2) technology of close clean figuration can have new development ceaselessly, on one hand original technique can get be improvemented ceaselessly rising, use all sorts of figuration methods integratedly to be able to appear on the other hand new compound figuration new technology. (3) the occurrence as new material, many material machine a method very difficult with the tradition, drove new material thereby the development of technology of close clean figuration. (4) the development of the computer, nonlinear the development of problem calculation method, drove nonlinear finite yuan wait for technical development, make numeric imitate technology moves toward a factory by unit of the school, research, will use extensively at figuration craft analysis, and organize what by macroscopical imitate farther Xiang Wei watchs imitate and quality forecast direction to develop. (5) the contradiction that resolves production of automation big batch and user to ask to product individuation, those who produce a course is flexible change will get developing. (6) of the stuff that brings as a result of material of efficient, energy-saving, section and resource managing and use effectively, the adoption of material of craft of the progress of figuration technology and equipment, free from contamination, make figuration technology manufactures a technology for cleanness by change of contaminative large family. The development trend of superprecision technology is: To more high accuracy, more efficient way develops; To large change, miniature changes directional development; Detect to treatment unifinication way develops; Machine tool to muti_function modular way develops; Discuss ceaselessly agree with the new principle of superprecision, new method, new material. At the beginning of 21 centuries will be superprecision technology achieves Namijia 10 years the key of work skill 10 years. In exceeding high speed processing technique, cutting tool material already provided steel from carbon steel and alloy labour, experience material of steel of high-speed steel, hard alloy, pottery and porcelain, develop diamond of Ji Jujing of making synthetic diamond (PCD) , cubic nitrogen changes nitrogen of cubic metre of boracic Ji Jujing to change boron (CBN) ; Cutting rate also blazes new trails as cutting tool material and raise 1200m/min above from the 12m/min previously. Because this somebody thinks, as new cutting tool (grind) the ceaseless development of material, 10 years cutting rate should rise every other one times, subsonic speed and even exceed what velocity of sound machines to appear too won't distant. 2. The technology of close clean figuration of developed country of industry of domestic and international current situation is in nearly 20 will have very great progress for years, had made the production technology with mechanical main manufacturing industry, casting, v, solder, the main position that heat treatment and exterior modified respect already held total output. In our country technology of close clean figuration still is compared in the proportion in whole figuration production low, figuration precision is overall and average should compare abroad low 1 ~ 2 grade, technologies of a few advanced close clean figuration have a few enterprise to use only in our country, a few complex difficult figuration our country still cannot be produced, the part is very advanced figuration equipment, manipulator and robot, large product line of automation of one share high level builds line technology, our country is returned cannot home of all base oneself upon, 15 ~ should lag behind 25 years than advanced country on overall level consequently. On each professional direction, abroad appeared nearly 20 years a batch of new technologies, have a few we had not mastered, although did experiment research,have a few, had not used at production. People often emphasized particularly on to study at the development of individual technology and application in the past, market competition is intense today, people for better more economic figuration component, what notice multinomial advanced technique increasingly is integrated apply, can achieve better result. Use material to exceed model character to undertake soldering is in for example aviation the application in figuration, the blame air that uses low alloy component pledges steel accuses Leng Ke to move simple heat treatment in order to replace through accusing forge, cast the figuration of half solid state that rises with v union, pink not the preform repass of agglomeration forgings catch better performance spare parts of close clean look, it is foreign development the technology with faster application good effect. Our country expert combines figuration roller forge and look of forge of essence of life, the Liang Sheng before be being used at the car produces more current than abroad technology to build product line, a line but managing on 100 million investment. Traditional figuration technique is to build the technology on experience and experimental data base, make craft of figuration of a new part undertake be modificationed in great quantities debugging even when production. The computer and computational technology develop, special dispute linear is finite yuan develop, the figuration process that makes difficulty very great has imitate analysis and numeric consideration likely. The developed country had begun much research work in this respect, form software of a few business to be used at figuration craft analysis. Our country had had a large number of research in this respect, a few units also developed a few software, but because throw inadequacy, those who form commercial software is very few. Close clean figuration and close flawless figuration technology is used at large quantities of quantities to produce normally, requirement enterprise builds the product line of different technique level, need has corresponding manipulator and robot. Because working condition, environment is harsher, opposite to the need amount of these robots less, breed is more, so need participates in development by this professional. Current, people raised requirement of a few individuation stage by stage to product requirement, when building automatic product line so, put forward to build flexible the requirement of product line, abroad produced a respect to had appeared in close clean figuration a few flexible product line, our country must notice this one trend, should need sue for peace to invest intensity according to the user, construction is different automation degree and contented and flexible the product line that changes requirement. Foreign enterprise tastes quality to assure to produce, strengthen quality management on one hand, do exceedingly to produce the quality of whole process to control, pass the automation in producing a course and intelligent control on the other hand, in order to make sure close clean figuration produces quality stability, can make flawless or close flawless. In exceed respect of high speed processing technique, vought company of the United States developed to exceed high speed milling machine 1976, top rotate speed achieved 20000rpm. Particularly conspicuous is, engineering of production of university of industry of confederative Germany Darmstadt and machine tool institute begin to undertake mechanism studies exceeding high speed cutting systematically from 1978, undertake to all sorts of metals and metalloid material high speed cutting experiments, confederative Germany organized a few enterprises to offer 2000 much mark to support this research work. Since the later period in 80 time, exceed machine tool of high speed cutting commercially to appear ceaselessly, exceed high speed machine tool from onefold freeboard development of fast milling machine becomes freeboard fast car milling machine, auger milling machine and even all sorts of high speed machining center. The freeboard that Switzerland, England, Japan also rolls out him in succession fast machine tool. Main shaft of the HG400III that Japanese day establishs machine of essence of life machining center is highest turn up 36000 ~ 40000r/min, fast and floating rate is workbench 36 ~ 40m/min. Speed of shift of feed of machining center of the HVM800 of the American Ingersoll firm that uses linear electric machinery high speed is 60m/min. In recent years, our country exceeds the each key domain that high speed machines in high speed, if add decelerate unit of main shaft of high-power high speed, high,the respect such as bearing of scroll of linear feed electric machinery, pottery and porcelain also had more research, but overall level still has bigger difference with abroad. In superprecision technology respect, the United States is to develop the nation with the earliest research, also be the country that heretofore is in world banner standing. Be in early 50 time end, wait for the need that sophisticated technology admits as a result of spaceflight, the United States developed diamond cutting tool above all exceed accurate cutting technology, developed corresponding air bearing main shaft exceed accurate machine tool, use at machining missile of illuminator of laser nuclear fusion, tactics and manned airship to use spherical blame spherical and large part. Like American LLL lab and Y - 12 factories are below support of American energy department, in July 1983 development succeeds large exceed DTM of accurate diamond lathe - 3 model, all sorts of metal illuminator that the laser nuclear fusion that this machine tool can machine 4500kg of 2100mm of Φ of the largest part, weight uses, infra-red device uses binoculars of spare parts, large celestial body (include X light celestial body is telescopic) etc. The treatment precision of this machine tool can achieve appearance error to be 28nm (radius) , circularity and flatness are 12. 5nm, treatment surface surface roughness is Ra4. 2nm. The LODTM that this machine tool and this lab developed 1984 is large exceeding accurate lathe still is now together the large diamond with highest, highest precision exceeds the accepted technical level on the world accurate lathe. Japan is opposite to the research of superprecision technology at the United States, flower for start later, but the country with the rapiddest development of technology of the superprecision on current world. Japanese research is different from the United States mainly, former be with civilian taste application to be main target, latter is with developing national defence sophisticated technology is main goal. The small-sized, exceeds part of small-sized electron and optics superprecision technology that so Japan is using in equipment of sound, smooth, image, office respect, it is more advanced with what have an advantage, exceeded the United States even. The superprecision technology of our country had great progress in 70 time evening, 80 time metaphase appeared to have world level exceed accurate machine tool and part. Institute of Beijing machine tool is one of main units that home has superprecision technology studies, develop those who gave a variety of different types to exceed accurate machine tool, component and relevant high accuracy to check an instrument to wait, amount to like precision 0. The accurate bearing of 025µm, JCS - 027 exceed accurate lathe, JCS - 031 exceed accurate milling machine, JCS - 035 exceed accurate lathe, exceed sensitization of system of accurate lathe numerical control, copycat to rouse treatment illuminator of laser of machine tool, infra-red high-power, exceed accurate vibration - displacement measures small appearance to wait, reached home banner, international is advanced level. 303 places exceed aerospace industry ministry coordinate of accurate main shaft, granite measured the respect such as machine to undertake thorough research and product are produced. Harbin Institute of Technology exceeds crystal of cutting tool of accurate cutting, diamond in diamond directional grind with blade, emery wheel of diamond small pink electroanalysises the respect such as online nap technology had fruitful research. Tsinghua university is reached in treatment of equipment of integrated circuit superprecision, disk detect workbench of equipment, small displacement, exceed nicety arenaceous belt grinding and grind cast, emery wheel of diamond small pink exceeds accurate grinding, blame the circle is sectional exceeded the respect such as accurate cutting to have thorough research, corresponding product comes out. In addition institute of machinery of nicety of optics of Changchun of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in grain industry college, Shenyang the university of science and technology of institute of tool of factory of the first machine tool, Chengdu, national defence research that had this one field, successful. But as a whole, our country is in the efficiency of superprecision, precision, dependability, especially norms (large size) compare with respect of sex of technical form a complete set and abroad, ask actually to compare with production, still have quite big difference. 3. The our country of crucial technology respect that home studies to the foundation needs in the industry had begun more individual research, had realized industrialization partly among them, but the total sophisticated technology that says difficulty is tall still fails to master. 3, " 15 " target and main research content 1. Target (1) tackle key problem through science and technology, make close clean figuration and close flawless main field catchs up with figuration technology or be close to international advanced level, combine our country circumstance to there is development to innovate on partial technology; Crucial technology should accomplish maturity to change, whole set is changed, industrialization, can offer whole set technology to the enterprise, contented company ability changes and produce development need. (2) exceed high speed treatment to realize industrial application basically, main shaft is highest turn up 15000r/min, feed speed amounts to 40 ~ 60m/min, speed of emery wheel grinding amounts to 100 ~ 150m/s; Superprecision comes true basically inferior micron class treatment. 2. Basically study content (1) new technology of close clean figuration and its industrialization technology contain ① of research of technology of close clean figuration close clean figuration is flawless cast technology of modified of technology of high grade and technology of technology, accurate plasticity figuration, efficient accurate join, accurate heat treatment, high grade efficient surface modified and coating technology, . Should issueing century key to need in the light of the industry, the technology with answer lid wide range begins research, provide new technology, new method, accumulate, perfect and relevant data, achieve practical change. Imitate of craft of close clean figuration analyses ② and optimize technology of key of simulative of craft of figuration of technical thrash out, make three-dimensional software program perfect change, maturity is changed, commercial. And macroscopical analysis develops to microcosmic analysis. ③ figuration product line studies with manipulator and robot what figuration product line needs typical manipulator and robot, make achieve seriation, maturity to change, satisfy the need of enterprise technical reformation. Transfer matic of production of close clean figuration mixes ④ flexible product line builds line technology to be core with craft, research control is close clean figuration and close flawless figuration is automatic product line builds a technology, emphasize particularly on research control product line is controlled and online detect, reach a ground company production program and real fund, build product line of degree of different automation, mechanization, also want to need according to developing, construction part is flexible product line. ⑤ makes the quality of the process control a technology to develop online intelligence to control a technology, development nondestructive detects technology and technology of statistical process control, obtain the control of whole process quality of pair of close clean figuration, assure end item quality and precision thereby. ⑥ is close of clean figuration technology fictitious make and network production technology is aimed at the characteristic with this industry much medium and small businesses, with association, society, productivity stimulative center is core, absorb achievement place to belong to unit and enterprise of person of the same trade to attend, build fictitious make and the network makes a system, solve an enterprise to be opposite the demand of information, technology, the enterprise can be accepted through the network order goods, undertake the technology seeks advice, be helpful for raising enterprise whole level thereby. (2) exceed high speed processing technique to study ① exceeds mechanism of high speed cutting, grinding. Machine all sorts of process, cutting grinding phenomena to exceeding high speed cutting and grinding, all sorts of be machined function of fast cutting grinding and the craft parameter that exceed grinding of high speed cutting optimize material and the freeboard that all sorts of cutting tool wear a stuff etc undertake the system studies. ② exceeds unit of high speed main shaft to make a technology. The research of main shaft material, structure, bearing and development; Character of trends of main shaft system and hot condition sex study; Flexible the research of stretch bearing technology of main shaft and its bearing; Of main shaft system lubricate to study with cooling technology; The much target of main shaft optimizes research of design technology, fictitious design technology; Main shaft changes knife technology research. ③ exceeds unit of high speed feed to make a technology. The development of annulus of chip of high speed position; Nicety communicates the research of servo and electric machinery; Systematic inertia and parameter of servo electric machinery match the research of the relation; Mechanical drive catenary is static, use stiffness research; Add decelerate to dominate technical research; Accurate ball guide screw deputy reach big lead guide screw deputy development. ④ exceeds high speed treatment to be ground with cutting tool reach material. Research develops all sorts of exceeding high speed is machined (include difficult treatment material) grind a material and preparation technology with cutting tool, make the cutting speed of cutting tool reachs foreign industry developed country the level of 90 time end, grind provided grinding rate to achieve 150m/s above. ⑤ exceeds high speed to process test technique. The functional component such as unit to exceeding high speed to machine unit of machine tool main shaft, feed system and machine tool bearing and auxiliary and unit system and drive control monitoring technology of the system, provide to exceeding high speed treatment to be ground with cutting tool wear away and damaged, grind quality of surface of the condition such as provided nap and precision of treatment of the workpiece in exceeding high speed to machine a process, treatment to wait for online monitoring technology to undertake study. (3) the treatment mechanism of superprecision of ① of superprecision technology research. "Developmental treatment " reach " surmount a gender to machine " mechanism research; Microcosmic surface integrality studies; In exceed all sorts of pair of material inside exact scope (include to be ground to provide data by treatment material and cutting tool) treatment process, phenomenon, function and craft parameter have suggestive research. ② superprecision equipment makes a technology. Accept rice class exceeds accurate lathe project to change research; Exceed accurate grinder research; Crucial foundation, if shafting, slideway is servo of deputy, numerical control, small the research such as displacement device; Exceed assembly of accurate machine tool to make technical research. ③ superprecision cutting tool, grind reach blade to grind a technology. Diamond cutting tool and blade grind emery wheel of technology, diamond small pink and research of its nap technology. ④ nicety measures technology and error compensation technology. Accept rice form is standard with deliver a system to build; Accept rice class measures an instrument to consider; Dimensional error compensates technical research; Measure compositive technology research. Ambient conditions of ⑤ superprecision work. Exceed nicety to measure, charge lukewarm system, pass the time in a leisurely way brace up technical research; Exceed accurate purifying device, new-style special type discharges the research of bit unit and relevant technology. CNC Milling CNC Machining